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2 edition of Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes found in the catalog.

Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes

Grant Richard Hurlburt

Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes

determination and interpretation.

by Grant Richard Hurlburt

  • 348 Want to read
  • 11 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English


The Physical Object
Pagination250 leaves.
Number of Pages250
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15443272M
ISBN 100612117510

Encephalization quotient (EQ), encephalization level (EL) or just encephalization is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between observed to predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, based on nonlinear regression on a range of reference species. It has been used as a proxy for intelligence and thus as a possible way of comparing the intelligences of different.   Biologists typically use a simple scale called the encephalisation quotient to give an idea of the relative brain size of an animal and it relates brain volume to body : Dr Dave Hone.


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Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes by Grant Richard Hurlburt Download PDF EPUB FB2

RELATIVE BRAIN SIZE IN RECENT AND FOSSIL AMNIOTES: DETERMINATION AND INTERPRETATION. by GRANT RICHARD HURLBURT A thesis submitted in. relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes: determination and interpretation Thesis (PDF Available) January with Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Plot the relative brain sizes in order to observe any trends in brain size as they relate to a body mass scale (from small-bodied to large-bodied). You will plot the logarithm of body mass (a proxy for body size) and cranial capacity (a proxy for brain size) on the chart found on the following page.

Take a look at the numbers in the. Relative Brain Size in Recent and Fossil Amniotes: Determination and Interpretation PhD thesis, Univ. Toronto () PhD thesis, Univ. Toronto () Google Scholar. The encephalization quotient is a between-species measure of relative brain size, operationalized as the ratio of actual to predicted brain mass for a given species relative to body mass.

This indicator is used in comparative analyses involving different species as an index of cognitive ability. Cranial Measurements: Determine whether the relative brain size of A.

afarensis was more similar to modern humans or modern chimpanzees. (Remember that the primitive condition is expected to be more like that of a modern chimpanzee). In this section of the activity, you will take 3 measurements: cranial width (the widest part of the skull), cranial length (the distance from the forehead just.

Studies of brain size evolution in fossil marine mammals have depended upon Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes book the volume of the endocranial cavity in fossil specimens.

Because the specific gravity of brain tissue is nearly the value of water volumetric data have been typically converted to units of by: Hopson JA () Relative brain size and behavior in archosaurian reptiles. Ann Rev Ecol Syst – CrossRef Google Scholar Hutchinson JR, Bates KT, Molnar J, Allen V, Makovicky PJ () A computational analysis of limb and body dimensions in Tyrannosaurus rex with implications for locomotion, ontogeny, and growth.

Unfortunately, fossilized brains of ancient amniotes have not been identified; we therefore cannot address the brain architectures of ancestral amniotes directly. However, endocast analysis of fossil brain cases provides valuable information on the size and outer morphology of brains in extinct animals.

Brain size in dinosaurs traditionally has been regarded as in extant reptiles, occupying about 50% of the endocranial volume (e.g. Jerison,Hopson,Hopson,Rogers, ). Recent studies (Osmólska,Evans, ), however, have shown that this is a significant underestimate for many dinosaurs and that instead, endocast size closely replicates the size of the dinosaur by: Human evolution - Human evolution - Increasing brain size: Because Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes book complete fossil heads than hands are available, it is easier to model increased brain size in parallel with the rich record of artifacts from the Paleolithic Period (c.

million to 10, years ago), popularly known as the Old Stone Age. The Paleolithic preceded the Middle Stone Age, or Mesolithic Period; this. Amniotes. reptiles and mammals. Scientists recently discovered a new fossil anthropoid in Spain.

To determine whether this new species is an Old World monkey or an ape, the researchers would _____. For the species represented on this graph, body mass is directly proportional to brain size.

relative brain size that exists across all living verte- birds, or mammals. Among amniotes, mammals ac-tually appear in the fossil record before reptiles; rep- vertebrate infundibulum (neurohypophysis). Recent findings from a cache of fossils of a small creature namedHaikouellalanceolatum,discoveredinHaikou.

Compared to most other animals, humans have very large brains in absolute terms (by far, the largest of any primate) and also with respect to the sizes of their bodies (called relative brain size, RBS). In most vertebrate radiations, brain size varies approximately fold, and brain size increases with body size, although this increase is not proportional.

Rather, it is allometric, with slopes ranging from (agnathans) to (mammals).Cited by: Their relative brain sizes were well within the range of Recent endothermic amniotes (birds) and well above the Recent reptile range.

This rests on the hypothesis that the relatively large brains of Recent visceral endotherms require a high and controlled : College Instructor at Sheridan. Extant and fossil brain size and body size estimates came from the following sources: Primates (1, 21 – 27), Carnivores (15, 28), Ungulates (1, 28 – 31), Cetaceans (32, 33), and Insectivores (34 – 36).

All data used in the analyses were estimated brain volume rather than endocranial volume or wet weight. Its brain size was – cubic centimeters, approximately the size of a modern chimpanzee brain.

It also had prognathic jaws, which is a relatively longer jaw than that of modern humans. In the mids, the fossil of an adult female A.

afarensis was found in the. include gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and humans; larger brains relative to body size; A phylogenetic tree shows that all primates are divided into three groups: lemurs, lorises, and pottos, tarsiers, and anthropoids, including monkeys and apes. Jaws on the left are shown relative to the large adult, MCZ Extended Data Fig.

5 Dental and mandibular anatomy of Kayentatherium perinate (TMM b). Hurlburt GR () Relative brain size in recent and fossil amniotes: determination and interpretation. Toronto: Ph. Thesis, University of Toronto. Weston EM, Lister AM () Insular dwarfism in hippos and a model for brain size reduction in Homo floresiensis.

Nat Lett 85–Cited by: The encephalization quotient (EQ) is an estimation of the relative size of the brain and represents the actual brain size of an individual divided by the expected brain size for its particular body size calculated using an allometric relationship derived from a large extant sample.

Brains Through Time A Natural History of Vertebrates Georg F. Striedter and R. Glenn Northcutt. The first book to integrate evolutionary neurobiology with functional morphology and paelocology; Includes a novel appendix on the comparative anatomy of the cranial nerves. There are high energetic costs associated with the development and maintenance of brains that are large relative to body size.

Part A The fossil record documents trends in which brains that are large relative to body size evolved in certain lineages, including hominins.

Page 6 of 16 12/4/ PM Jerison: Fossils, Brains, and Behavior (Japan ) to reduce probable brain size to ml or ml, a not unusual range of “error” for measuring dinosaur endocasts as brains. Estimating body size can be more difficult.

In mammals one is often reduced toCited by: 4. Human evolution - Human evolution - The fossil evidence: By million years ago at least one hominin species, Au. afarensis, was an adept walker. In addition to anatomic evidence from this time, there is also a metre (foot) trackway produced by three individuals who walked at a leisurely pace on moist volcanic ash at Laetoli in northern Tanzania.

Mammalian skull heterochrony reveals modular evolution and a link between cranial development and brain size Daisuke Koyabu, a, 1, 2 Ingmar Werneburg, 1 Naoki Morimoto, 3 Christoph P. Zollikofer, 3 Analia M. Forasiepi, 1, 4 Hideki Endo, 2 Junpei Kimura, 5 Satoshi D. Ohdachi, 6 Nguyen Truong Son, 7 and Marcelo R.

Sánchez-Villagra a, 1. Evolution of the Amniote Brain. Amniote Evolution. The fossil record is incomplete and detailed endocasts are rare. pelycosaurs exhibited narrow midbrains and forebrains.

Eventually, a gradual increase in the relative size of brain versus body size is seen. The therapsids, such as Probainognathus, possessed telencephalons like. Brain size increased, but only slightly. Brain and body size increase. From 2 million–, years ago. During this time period early humans spread around the globe, encountering many new environments on different continents.

These challenges, along with an increase in body size, led to an increase in brain size. Brain size increases rapidly. New Approaches to Previous Endocast Studies. The lack of natural cranial endocast material for a number of fossil vertebrates is an impediment to endocast studies.

Furthermore, it is impossible to non-destructively generate artificial endocasts from many fossil skulls using conventional techniques. But when it comes to relative brain size, N. acreensis, represented in this study by a fossil skull unearthed in the s in the Brazilian Amazon, seems to be an extreme.

The fossil record of amniotes extends back three hundred million years and reveals much about modern biological diversity of form and function. A collaborative effort of twenty-four researchers, Amniote Paleobiology presents thirteen new and important scientific perspectives on the evolution and biology of this familiar group/5(2).

A new study published in Science Advances used CT-scanning technology to view 3-million-year-old brain imprints inside fossil skulls of the species Australopithecus afarensis (famous for “Lucy” and “Selam” from Ethiopia’s Afar region) to shed new light on the evolution of brain.

Variation in daily activity patterns facilitates temporal partitioning of habitat and resources among species. Knowledge of temporal niche partitioning in paleobiological systems has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining reliable information about activity patterns from fossils.

On the basis of an analysis of scleral ring and orbit morphology in 33 archosaurs, including dinosaurs and Cited by: Relative size versus controlling for size. Interpretation of ratios in research on sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum.

Current Anthropology   Thought to belong to a relative of the Iguanodon, the thin layer of mineralised matter is the first fossilised brain tissue found for any land-living vertebrate. Thu 27 Oct EDT. Last. Amniote Origins integrates modern systematic methods with studies of functional and physiological processes, and illustrates how studies of paleobiology can be illuminated by studies of neonatology.

For this reason, comparative anatomists and physiologists, functional morphologists, zoologists, and paleontologists will all find this unique volume very useful.5/5(1). Functional implications of neural canal anatomy in recent and fossil marine carnivores.

Journal of Morphology, Vol.Issue. 3, p. CrossRef; the case of the brain and behavior of New Zealand's Haast's Eagle (Harpagornis moorei).

Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 29, Issue. 3, p. Relative brain size and behavior in Cited by: Bird intelligence has been studied through several attributes and abilities.

Many of these studies have been on birds such as quail, domestic fowl, and pigeons kept under captive conditions. It has, however, been noted that field studies have been limited, unlike those of the apes.

Full discussion: Explore Evolution takes umbrage at a diagram from T.S. Kemp's book The Origin and Evolution of Mammals. Page 21 of Explore Evolution shows a series of skulls (Figure ), each the same size, and then compares this on page 29 (Figure ) to the same skulls at relative sizes, where some are much larger than others.

Evolutionary encephalization, or increasing brain size relative to body size, is assumed to be a general phenomenon in mammals. However, despite extensive evidence for variation in both absolute and relative brain size in extant species, there have been no explicit tests of patterns of brain size change over evolutionary time.

Instead, allometric relationships between brain size and body size. A newly discovered set of genes could help explain how humans diverged from other apes.

Three genes involved in nerve cell generation in the brain emerged roughly million years ago and may have contributed to the rapid evolution of the large human brain, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator David Haussler and colleagues report onin the journal Cell.Prefrontal cortex volume is larger, relative to brain size, in humans compared to other primates.

But this relation is not very much larger in humans – recent estimates range from less than 10 to 30 percent compared to chimpanzees (HollowaySchoenemann et al. ).